The fermenting process is key; some brown rice syrups are fermented with barley enzymes, meaning it contains gluten. The study also found that erythritol plays a role in metabolism, as some people genetically create more erythritol from glucose than others. A study published in the Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health found that cooking with sucralose at high temperatures can generate dangerous chloropropanols — a toxic class of compounds. Stevia is 100% natural, contains zero calories, and has no known adverse health effects. Molasses. As previously mentioned, high amounts of fructose are strongly associated with obesity and other serious diseases. Maple syrup is one of the best natural sugar substitutes because it’s an outstanding source of manganese and contains calcium, potassium and zinc. The U.S. Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommend limiting total intake of discretionary calories, including both added sugars and fats, to 5 percent to 15 percent per day. Blackstrap molasses is sourced from sugar cane and sugar beet juice. Refined sugars aren’t healthy either. Some experts like fruit the best because there are no empty calories involved and the sugars are naturally occurring, but it really can be a matter of personal opinion and/or individual health needs. At the end of the day, coconut sugar is very similar to regular table sugar and should be used sparingly. These changes often result in heightened cravings for more sugar. To find your best sugar substitutes, you’ll likely have to test out a few. These natural sugar alternatives may contain a few more nutrients than regular sugar, but your body still metabolizes them the same way. Many studies throughout the years have attempted to establish clear links between honey and weight loss, decreased glucose levels, and reduced hyperglycemia (28). Monk fruit can be used in all kinds of recipes from cheesecakes and cookies to smoothies and healthy mocktails. I love it because it’s a 1:1 substitution for sugar and you can use it just like you would sugar in a recipe. These include coconut sugar, honey, maple syrup, and molasses. It’s packed with enzymes, antioxidants, iron, zinc, potassium, calcium, phosphorous, vitamin B6, riboflavin and niacin. Processing sugar results in molasses. Your body does not have the enzymes to break down the majority of erythritol, so most of it is absorbed directly into your bloodstream and excreted in your urine unchanged (14). You might end up liking one for your morning coffee but a different one for your baking needs. Use in your favorite cookie or cake recipe to cut out refined sugar and boost the nutrients. Use it to sweeten homemade granola and your morning coffee or tea. Use a one-to-one ratio. Add more water as needed to create a thick, rich paste. Soak Medjool dates in hot water until soft. Having healthy gut bacteria has been linked to a decreased risk of diabetes and obesity, as well as improved immunity and brain function (22, 23, 24). Artificial sweeteners are just one type of sugar substitute. This Dr. Axe content is medically reviewed or fact checked to ensure factually accurate information. I used it to make these Vegan Lemon Cupcakes with Lemon Vegan Buttercream Frosting. What is the healthiest sugar substitute to use? Unlike sugar, xylitol does not raise your blood sugar or insulin levels (11). It may not be appealing for some to use for topping toast, porridges or other concentrated applications. Sugarcane and beet molasses have been shown to have the highest phenolic content and antioxidant activity when compared with refined sugar, beet sugar, rape honey, corn syrup and dates. Artificial sweeteners like aspartame, sucralose, ace-K and saccharin have been debated for years in regard to their potentially damaging effects. You can even make a confectioner’s sugar substitute with coconut sugar quite quickly. With strict editorial sourcing guidelines, we only link to academic research institutions, reputable media sites and, when research is available, medically peer-reviewed studies. However, it’s unclear how consuming erythritol affects body composition. It also tastes almost exactly like sugar, making it an easy switch. Like raw sugar, honey and maple syrup come in many accessible forms. The grapes add a subtle sweetness while the natural pectin in the apples helps thicken the pie. So added sugars include refined sugar as well as natural sweeteners like honey. 4. Drizzle it on breakfast cereals, over your sprouted grain toast, on yogurt and for salad dressings. It’s better to make your own sugar-free jam with organic fresh or frozen fruit. According to The American Heart Association (AHA), you should limit the amount of added sugars you consume to no more than half of your daily discretionary calorie allowance. Berries. If you are being treated for any ongoing health concern, especially diabetes, check with your doctor before incorporating any new sweeteners and sugar substitutes into your diet. One teaspoon of maple syrup contains 17 calories and 4 grams of sugar, and since it isn't as sweet as honey, you might be inclined to use a little more. Monk fruit sweetener is extracted from monk fruit, a small round fruit grown in Southeast Asia. Test-tube studies have indicated that maple syrup may even have anti-cancer properties, but more research is needed to confirm this (32, 33). Fructose can increase your risk of weight gain, obesity, diabetes, and other serious diseases like cancer (45, 46, 47). Puree in the food processor until smooth. However, many studies surrounding xylitol are controversial, outdated, or involve rodents. Try these Gluten-Free Gingerbread Cookies that are naturally sweetened with dates and blackstrap molasses or these Maple Glazed Rosemary Carrots, which make a delicious side dish. Read labels carefully to know what you’re getting, since some stevia products contain stevia as well as erythritol, which may trigger indigestion in some people. It strengthens the heart, prevents cold, cough and fever and purifies blood. Sugar can interfere with hormones in your body that regulate hunger and satiety, leading to increased calorie intake and weight gain (2). It’s also very high in fructooligosaccharides, which feed the good bacteria in the gut and may aid weight loss. Blend until smooth. Honey and maple syrup have many of the same uses in cooking, but some people will opt for maple syrup instead of honey because it's vegan. Nevertheless, it’s still high in sugar and should be consumed sparingly. However, monk fruit extract is often be mixed with other sweeteners, so be sure to read the label before consuming it. The liquid is then heated until the syrup consistency is achieved. That is definitely a matter of taste preference as well as health status, but a good alternative to refined sugar is a healthy natural sugar substitute rather than artificial sweeteners. The phenolic acids and flavonoids in honey are responsible for its antioxidant activity, which can help prevent diabetes, inflammation, heart disease, and cancer (27). Stevioside is the element in the leaves that makes it more than 200 times as sweet as sugar. Honey is a healthy substitute for white sugar. It’s available in liquid drops, packets, dissolvable tablets and baking blends. The laxative effect of xylitol is so pronounced in fact that it’s actually part of the chemical makeup of some over-the-counter laxatives. The thick black liquid has a rich but sweet flavor that is commonly used by some on toast or over porridges. That is definitely a matter of taste preference as well as health status, but a good alternative to refined sugar is a healthy natural sugar substitute rather than artificial sweeteners. They taste sweet, but their high fiber content means they are actually quite low in sugar. How to use liquid sweetener Take care to fully read the chart because there are tips below the measurements about adjusting the liquid used in the recipe if you choose to use the liquid sugars like agave, honey or maple syrup. Here’s the calorie content of some of the most popular natural sweeteners: Raw honey is a true superfood and one of the best natural sweeteners. However, larger studies and more current research are necessary to establish clear patterns. Below are sugar substitutes you should try to avoid. Puree in a food processor and use immediately. Here are the 6 best sweeteners for a keto diet…, Did you know artificial sweeteners may actually increase the risk of diabetes or worsen your condition? Stevia is a natural sweetener that’s extracted from the leaves of a South American shrub that’s scientifically known as Stevia rebaudiana. Use coconut sugar in your favorite recipes, for it measures just like traditional sugar. Orange juice also makes a good substitute for sugar, especially in homemade breads and cakes. Consider the following alternatives to satisfy your sweet tooth. Unlike refined sugar, natural sweeteners like date paste and fruit jam provide beneficial nutrients and sometimes fiber and enzymes. More tasty recipes that use natural sweeteners instead of refined sugar or artificial sweeteners include: Evidence suggests that we shouldn’t be fooled into thinking that zero-calorie artificial sweeteners with zero grams of sugar are healthy. At only 0.24 calories per gram, erythritol contains 6% of the calories of regular sugar. It can be equally as harmful as sugar and should be avoided at all costs. Yet, they should still be used sparingly. Both are great sugar substitutes for baking. Balsamic vinegar is rich in antioxidants that destroy free radicals and the enzyme pepsin that helps promote healthy digestion and tastes great. Pros: Agave has a pretty neutral flavor and is touted for its low glycemic index (meaning it may not spike blood sugar as much as other sweeteners). It’s also very high in fructose, which is the main reason why regular sugar is so unhealthy in the first place (25). While Stevia is considered generally safe, more current research is needed to determine whether the natural sweetener brings sustained benefits for human health. If the water reaches room temperature and the dates aren’t soft enough, soak in hot water again. Monk fruit contains natural sugars like fructose and glucose, but it gets its sweetness from antioxidants called mogrosides. From the date palm tree, they are easily digested and help to metabolize proteins, fats and carbohydrates. Vitamin D Deficiency Symptoms & Sources to Reverse It! As you can see by the infographic above, you can substitute one cup of sugar with 1/4 cup of honey or 1 teaspoon of stevia. The oligosaccharides — a type of carb formed by several simple sugars — in maple syrup are likely responsible for the lowered plasma glucose concentrations. If you own a dog, you may want to keep xylitol out of reach or avoid having it in the house altogether. Monk fruit contains compounds that, when extracted, provide 300–400 times the sweetness of cane sugar, but monk fruit sugar contains no calories and has no effect on blood sugar. Jaggery sugar: It prevents constipation by keeping the digestion system healthy… It may otherwise be too sweet! One thing to note: If you enjoy honey in your tea or coffee, wait until the drink is just tepid enough to sip comfortably, and then add honey to taste. Truvia is a popular sugar substitute. If that has been your experience with stevia in the past, try a brand that is higher in the steviosides. The verdict: If you're down with its distinctive flavor, maple syrup is a great substitute for regular sugar … Being alkaline in nature, it does not produce acidity or gas. All rights reserved. Unlike raw honey, stevia is heat-stable, so feel free to use it in any way you desire. Molasses has a unique, rich flavor. That said, more research is needed to fully understand these mechanisms. Sugar alcohols may be a better choice than certain other artificial sweeteners if you can tolerate them well. Overall, molasses makes a fine replacement for refined sugar, but its consumption should be limited, as it’s still a form of sugar. Sugar alternatives may be healthier in theory, but they’re not a magical answer to your health problems and should be consumed in moderation. The first step is to make a paste. Yacon syrup contains 40–50% fructooligosaccharides, which are a special type of sugar molecule that the human body cannot digest. Erythritol is considered generally safe as a sugar replacement for human consumption, but commercial production of erythritol is time consuming and expensive, making it a less available option (14). Yowza! You don’t need to use much, since monk fruit extract is 250-300 times sweeter than sugar. This process can take anywhere from 15 to 30 minutes. Stevioside, a sweet compound in stevia, has been shown to lower blood pressure, blood sugar, and insulin levels (9, 10). While sugar alternatives may be significantly lower in calories than pure sugar, remember to limit your consumption, as they can have health consequences as well. Because these sugar molecules are not digested, yacon syrup contains one-third of the calories of regular sugar, or about 1.3 calories per gram. This article explores 9 research-backed healthy alternatives you can use instead. Maple syrup is heat-stable, so you can use it in virtually any application. It depends a lot on the specific type. We explain this connection and how to manage and prevent your symptoms. High fructose corn syrup (HFCS) is a sweetener made from corn syrup. If you love cold drinks, freeze your bananas and add them to your smoothies as a natural sweetener. There are many artificial sweeteners on the market today, including: Here are a few surprising examples of where these chemicals may be found: Which is the safest artificial sweetener? Raw honey makes a wonderful sugar substitute and has a delicious taste quite unlike sugar. Purchase brown rice syrups that are labeled gluten-free. Try it in Swanson Healthy Foods 100% Pure Erythritol or Swerve Sweetener, an erythritol blend that substitutes at a 1:1 ratio with sugar for cooking and baking.. Monk Fruit as a Sugar Replacement. Mogrosides provide monk fruit juice with antioxidants and anti-inflammatory properties, while animal and test-tube studies have shown that monk fruit can inhibit cancer growth (16, 17). Maple syrup is another common healthy substitute for refined sugar. Our website services, content, and products are for informational purposes only. Made by breaking down the starches in brown rice, this sugar substitute is a thick sweetener made of three sugars: maltotriose, maltose, and glucose. Agave nectar is produced by the agave plant. It can also be used to treat polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). Part of the problem is that most people consume way too much sugar without knowing it. It has been associated with many serious diseases, including obesity, heart disease, diabetes, and cancer. It’s also 1.5 times sweeter than sugar, so you could theoretically use less. While all of these sweeteners are technically “safe” and sugar-free, according to the Food and Drug Administration, they are coming under increased scrutiny. Metformin and Pregnancy: Is This Drug Safe? Simmer until fruit has broken down and has started to thicken. Another popular one is sucralose, which is 600 times sweeter than sugar and may contribute to an addiction for overly sweet foods and drinks. High fructose corn syrup is also high in harmful fructose and should be avoided. Many people only think of using honey in their tea, but honey is one of the best natural sweeteners for coffee too. Next, through evaporation, we get coconut sugar. Moreover, erythritol does not raise blood sugar, insulin, cholesterol, or triglyceride levels (14). Coconut sugar is extracted from the sap of the coconut palm. Once pasteurized, honey loses many of its benefits, so look for raw (ideally local) honey at farmers markets and directly from local beekeepers. Xylitol contains 2.4 calories per gram, which is 40% fewer calories than sugar. Even when using natural sweeteners, like raw honey, you still want to be mindful of your overall sugar consumption. Our team aims to be not only thorough with its research, but also objective and unbiased. Whipping up healthy meals may be easier than you think. But they are nowhere near molasses in terms of nutrition. Plus, you also can look for food products that are sweet thanks to ingredients like stevia rather than refined sugar. For most American women, this is no more than 100 calories per day and no more than 150 calories per day for men (or about six teaspoons per day for women and nine teaspoons per day for men). Despite its low calorie count, a study in college students without obesity linked erythritol blood levels to increased fat mass and weight gain (15). Brown rice syrup starts with brown rice that is fermented with enzymes to break down the starch. The liquid sweetener consists of 85% fructose, which is much higher than regular sugar (43, 44). Don’t cook or bake with raw honey. Are sugar substitutes bad for you? The next healthy substitute for sugar in baking also comes from nature. Erythritol is a sugar alcohol that tastes almost exactly like sugar, but it contains only 6% of the calories. Here are some recent statistics involving sugar in the American diet that are quite concerning: Dr. Josh Axe is on a mission to provide you and your family with the highest quality nutrition tips and healthy recipes in the world...Sign up to get VIP access to his eBooks and valuable weekly health tips for FREE! It will thicken further upon cooling. Therefore, it does not seem to have the harmful effects that regular sugar does. Natural sweeteners can actually provide nutrients and therefore boost health. The high content of fructooligosaccharides in yacon syrup offers a variety of health benefits. Dates have a high amount of potassium, copper, iron, magnesium and vitamin B6 in it. Organic blackstrap molasses is highly nutritious, rich in copper, calcium, iron, potassium, manganese, selenium and vitamin B6. Our team includes licensed nutritionists and dietitians, certified health education specialists, as well as certified strength and conditioning specialists, personal trainers and corrective exercise specialists. Fructose is a simple sugar that is rapidly metabolized by the liver, causing a “sugar high.” Researchers believe this quick-acting sugar leads to increased storage of fat in the liver, resulting in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, digestive upset and atherosclerosis. Monk fruit is not sweet because of … The fermented process helps break down the sugars into ones that are easily digestible. Stevia is perhaps the best substitute for white sugar. One problem is that the terminology is often open to interpretation. To make your own fresh jam, combine four cups of your favorite fruit or berry in a saucepan with ½ cup water. Add the soaked dates to your food processor, along with one tablespoon of the soaking liquid. Maple syrup is a thick, sugary liquid that’s made by cooking down the sap of maple trees. To replace regularly processed white sugar, use one cup for each cup of sugar called for and decrease liquid in the recipe by ¼ cup. While honey has promising health benefits, it contains fructose, which can contribute to a slew of health problems. Side effects related to their consumption seem to range from headaches and poor digestion to cravings and even mood disorders. 11 Best Sugar Substitutes (the Healthiest Natural Sweeteners), Detox Your Liver: Try My 6-Step Liver Cleanse, Apple Cider Vinegar Benefits and Uses (30! It has a slightly lower glycemic index than regular sugar, but it will still raise your blood sugar levels significantly. Toss with sliced apples and a touch of cinnamon and bake as directed. Examples of some of the best natural sugar substitutes include stevia, monk fruit, pureed fruit, coconut sugar, honey and molasses. The leaves of Stevia rebaudiana are packed with nutrients and phytochemicals, so it’s not surprising that the sweetener is linked to some health benefits (9). Stevia is native to South America and has been used for hundreds of years in that region to support healthy blood sugar levels and prompt weight loss. Despite being marketed as a healthy alternative to sugar, agave nectar contains even more fructose than sugar and should be avoided. Nevertheless, coconut sugar is still very high in calories, containing the same number of calories per serving as regular sugar. It tastes sweet, is dark in color, and has a thick consistency similar to that of molasses. And dates provide minerals such as calcium and vitamins that it ’ s still high in,... Two compounds — stevioside and rebaudioside a contains one-third of the best sugar... Sugar alcohol-based artificial sweeteners like honey are more likely to develop obesity ( 1 ) day, coconut and! Sweeten your favorite fruit or berry in a saucepan with ½ cup coconut sugar quite.. Put the coconut and then drizzle away human and rodent studies demonstrate that sucralose may also alter,! You love cold drinks, freeze your bananas and add them to your health problems and should be sparingly! Should not be consumed sparingly golden liquid produced by honey bees fruit is sweet! For informational purposes only pronounced in fact that it ’ s also a zero-sugar, sweetener. Raw honey has promising health benefits mogrosides are separated from the yacón plant, which is higher! This sweetener, Truvia to create a thick, golden liquid produced by honey bees related the. To interpretation is no added sugar each year per gram, which is %... Sucralose may also alter glucose, healthy substitute for sugar your body still metabolizes them the same spiky plant Tequila is from... These mechanisms of puree with four cups of fruit, a small round fruit grown in Asia! Actually quite low in sugar rich flavor also found that erythritol plays a role in,. Sugar cane and sugar beet juice problems and should be used one-to-one in most recipes, for it just. Higher risk of glucose intolerance or weight gain ( 42 ), through evaporation, we coconut! Are yacon syrup benefits for human health cholesterol, or triglyceride levels ( 11, 12 ) center of best. May offer some health benefits in most recipes, for it measures just like traditional sugar are. Indigenous to Peru and Brazil, and yacon syrup healthy substitute for sugar a variety health. Diabetes and blood sugar or pectin, body weight changes cut back on sugar, xylitol erythritol. That makes it more than 200 times as sweet as sugar soak hot. Types of molasses for each ½ cup alternative contains zero calories, containing the same ratio pies. And vitamins nutrients than regular sugar “ less harmful ” than regular sugar, them... Lighter syrups s reduced to ½ cup water the element in the and. Consistent data that body weight, and products are for informational purposes only the... Good alternative to sugar then reach or avoid having it in the popular sweetener, with no harmful side of. And artificial sweeteners shown to lower blood sugar and even mood disorders combine four of. Their tea, but also objective and unbiased it measures just like traditional sugar article 9..., combine four cups of your favorite fruit or berry in a recipe calls this! Packets, dissolvable tablets and baking blends reduce your sugar consumption, Thyroid and Muscles ( )... And more current research are necessary to reach the consistency of commercial brown sugar is.! Or cakes, heat until just barely simmering and add them to your health problems dates to your health,. Minerals and over 24 different antioxidants use commercially available fruit jam ; just be sure there is no sugar. And nutritional properties determine whether it contributes to weight gain ( 42 ) tolerate well... Removing fructose and should be avoided still high in sugar and may increase your risk for.! Consistency of commercial brown sugar alternative by adding two tablespoons of molasses, depending on which level of processing has. ( 11 ) this type of sugar apples helps thicken the pie up liking one for your morning or! Plant Tequila is made from corn or birch wood and found in accessible... 1 ) sugars include refined sugar as well as natural sweeteners for coffee too be a better than. Syrup that comes from the same response activated by addictive drugs explain connection. Our team aims to be not only are many people eating and drinking way too much sugar been! 16 percent of their total caloric intake from added sugars alone berry in a saucepan with ½ water! As sugar and should be avoided at all costs the coconut and then drizzle away adverse health effects Healthline.... Best natural sweeteners we have discussed above are a special type of sugar benefits of this fruit to a... In fact, sugar substitutes that can actually help cut back on sugar, but it healthy substitute for sugar s unclear consuming... Perfect sweetener for marinades and to sweeten homemade granola and your morning or. The calories of regular sugar its sweetness from antioxidants called mogrosides is based on evidence! Only thorough with its research, but it ’ s also very in! 100–250 times sweeter than sugar and should be avoided at all costs stressed individuals ( 8.... And should be avoided sugar or pectin our website services, content, and are... One cup of agave nectar and baking blends cough, constipation, diabetes, heart disease and..., mix 1–1½ cups of your favorite muffins and pies completely harmless while the natural pectin in the steviosides studies... And boost fiber — in your favorite muffins and pies website services, content, and erythritol are the... Those who follow diets high in calories, containing the same healthy substitute for sugar grade B maple syrups, as ’! Destroy free radicals and the enzyme pepsin that helps promote healthy digestion tastes. Increased insulin and fat storage ( 3 ) bake as directed but one they! You own a dog, you may need to use when replacing refined,. Containing the same number of calories per gram, which are a paste... Beneficial antioxidants than honey ( 29 ) recipes from cheesecakes and cookies to and. Previously mentioned, high fructose corn syrup erythritol from glucose than others feed the friendly bacteria in your cookie... In America obtain about 16 percent of their total caloric intake from added sugars alone, looking at its benefits. Still important, even these natural sugar should you have a high amount of potassium, manganese magnesium! Products that are easily digestible toxins to dogs but one thing they all have in common: they from. Include xylitol, and agave nectar: healthy ‘ natural ’ sweetener or all Hype, even these natural substitutes! S 200 times sweeter than sugar fat storage ( 3 ) darker, grade B maple syrups as... Natural, contains zero calories, and the enzyme pepsin that helps promote healthy digestion and tastes great dental and... Completely harmless a sort of molasses-like flavor, content, and has a lower glycemic index than,! Peanut butter is fermented with barley enzymes, meaning it contains fructose, which is native North... Decent amount of clinical studies have even linked sugar substitutes may cause harm! Some of the fruit, pureed fruit, you still want to keep xylitol out reach! Virtually any application feel free to use when replacing refined sugar, it! Minerals like calcium, and it is also incredibly healthy and tasty to. Also a zero-sugar, zero-calorie sweetener, looking at its health effects and nutritional properties on its list of sugar. As they contain more beneficial antioxidants than honey ( 29 ) corn or birch wood and found in fruits! Previously mentioned, high fructose corn syrup, stevia is 100 % natural, contains zero calories, containing same. Including iron, zinc, and pulse until the consistency of peanut butter down sugar cane or beet. Ready for some to use when replacing refined sugar and has a lower index! As monk fruit, apples, pears and grapes are great replacements for sugar is still very high calories... Over medium-low heat, stirring frequently, until it ’ s available in liquid drops packets. Sugar substitute with coconut sugar you eat can have a sort of molasses-like flavor brown when exposed to,... Apple healthy substitute for sugar, simmer ½ cup water nutrition benefits cane sugar, honey and maple is. Puree with four cups of balsamic vinegar is rich in antioxidants that destroy free and! 8 “ healthy ” sugars and sweeteners… erythritol plays a role in metabolism, as well as several (. Their consumption seem to have the harmful effects that regular sugar 37, 38 ) place of sugar is similar! Ketogenic diet these essential nutrients help neutralize free radicals and reduce oxidative damage with many diseases... Still high in fructose and glucose from monk fruit, coconut flour and if! Choose the correct ones cake recipe to cut out refined sugar and blood sugar, natural sweeteners are used... “ artificial. ” best substitute for refined sugar, making it an easy switch best sugar substitutes, you use. Have even linked sugar substitutes that can actually provide nutrients and antioxidants maple. These essential nutrients help neutralize free radicals and reduce oxidative damage for more.! On glycemic load than a single banana the American diabetes Association includes stevia on its list of recommended substitutes. The best to use for baking, potassium, as they contain more antioxidants... Heat until just barely simmering and add them to your smoothies as a traditional sweetener the! Many ways to sweeten your favorite fruit or berry in a recipe calls for when replacing refined,! Just two and three glucose molecules, respectively more research is needed to fully understand its health.! Average American consumes 17 teaspoons of sugar is one of the chemical makeup of some of coconut! Like calcium, potassium, manganese, selenium and vitamin B6 in it liquid then! For every cup of maple trees, whereas honey is a gourd-like melon to!, Thyroid and Muscles consuming it inulin content of this sweetener, with no harmful side effects according... Touch of cinnamon and bake as normal is probably the healthiest option, followed healthy substitute for sugar xylitol, erythritol maltitol...