(B) The arm tip of the crown-of-thorns starfish, A. planci showing a similar arrangement as for Culcita novaguineae. It is a vital part of the system and exhibits control over the hundreds to thousands of tube feet that live in the ambulacral grooves. (ii) The digestive system in Platyhelminthes has only a single opening to the outside of the body that serve as both mouth and anus, and is hence called complete. (ii) The original function of water-vascular systems was feeding, not locomotion. Sexes are separate. Body coelom: Enterocoelic type includes perivisceral coelom and water vascular cavities. The water vascular system is a hydraulic system used by echinoderms, such as sea stars and sea urchins, for locomotion, food and waste transportation, and respiration. Sub Phylum: Echinozoa. The water vascular system is a complex network of canals and reservoirs. Fig: Asterias and Ophiura. (4)It works like hydraulic system. 8. (A) The distal part of the ambulaccecral grove of the cushion star, Culcita novaguineae, showing the distalmost tube foot (DmTF) holding the eye and the putative sensory tube feet (white arrows). Reproduction – Dioecious animals , Reproduction is sexual. 11. Echinoderm - Echinoderm - Form and function of external features: Echinoderms have a skeleton composed of numerous plates of mineral calcium carbonate (calcite). (iii) In open type of circulatory system, the blood is pumped out of the heart and the cells and tissues are directly bathed in it. Locomotion: Water vascular system with podia and tube-feet madreporite mostly present. Tube feet (podia) participate in locomotion, gas … 9. Water vascular system – distinctive feature. It allows diffusion of respiratory and nitrogenous wastes across the body wall. An excretory system is absent. Developed coelom and have a water driven tube system (water vascular system). Circulatory system: Perihaemel blood vascular system. 7. (5) Water enters the Water Vascular System through a madreporite. Radially symmetrical, globoid or discoid without arms or brachioles. Fertilisation – usually external. Helps in locomotion, capture and transport of food and respiration. ... For example, Ophiura. Water Vascular System of Echinus: The water vascular system is fundamen­tally similar to that of Asterias. The main ring canal bears five small inter-radial Tiedemann’s bodies. Digestive system is complete with mouth on the lower (ventral) side and anus on the upper (dorsal) side. (iii) The water-vascular system has soft membranes. Digestive system – complete with mouth on the lower (ventral) side and anus on the upper (dorsal) side. Excretory system – absent. Alimentary canal: Straight or coiled. The most distinctive feature of echinoderms is the presence of water vascular system which helps in locomotion, capture and transport of food and respiration. 7. Above: a transverse (cross) section through the arm of the brittlestar Ophiura. Madriporite and anus remain on the aboral surface. The visual system of starfish. The stone canal is membranous and is not calcified. 10. Podia include both tube feet (used in locomotion and attachment) and tentacles (used in feeding). Functions of the water vascular system (i) The water-vascular system is chiefly used for locomotion. Tube feet for locomotion and have regeneration capacity. The water vascular system is a unique and defining characteristic of echinoderms. Each radial canal gives a branch to the buccal podia and terminates as the lumen of the terminal tentacle. It uses hydraulic pressure and the action of muscles to operate the various podia (Brusca and Brusca 1990). 4. Reproduction: Sexual and gonochoristic. (6) When the muscles in the tube feet contract the tube … Hemal system. The podia also function in gas exchange and sensory reception. 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